Дорога домой. Выпуск ДД-14(07)а [29нбр06]
История Русской Церкви. Краткие обзоры
7 -- RUSSIAN CHURCH OUTSIDE OF RUSSIA
Contents: (1) Situation before 1917; (2) Situation after 1917; (3) Karlovatzki Sobor, (4) World War II; (5) After the War and Church Jurisdictions; (6) Russian Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR or ROCA); (7) American Jurisdiction/Orthodox Church in America; (8) Western-European Jurisdiction; (9) Patriarchal Jurisdiction; Question for students of Church Gimnazia.
1. Situation before 1917
Before 1917 there were churches outside of Russia dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of:
Russians living in monasteries in holy places (Holy Land-Palestine, Mount Athos in Greece, Bari in Italy etc.),
Russian pilgrims to holy places,
Employees of Russian Embassies (France, Germany etc.),
Russian tourists (France, Germany etc.),
Russian emigrants (USA, Canada etc.) and
Russians living in former Russian possessions (Poland, Finland, Alaska etc.).
Thus, before 1917, Russian churches already existed abroad: in the Holy Land, in Western Europe, in America, in Alaska, etc. Besides the churches there were also monasteries in the Holy Land and in Greece on Mount Athos. Since the Holy Synod (in St. Petersburg) was in charge of the Russian Orthodox Church, all churches abroad were subordinate to it. The entire world was divided into metropolias, and they into dioceses and each diocese had several church-parishes. Thus, in Russia there were Russian metropolias, and in Western Europe was the Western-European Metropolia and in America the American Metropolia.
The Structure of the Russian Orthodox Church:
At the head of the Church was the Holy Synod,
At the head of the metropolias were the Metropolitans,
At the head of the Dioceses there were Bishops (and Archbishops),
At the head of the parishes were иереи [priests].
There were several bishops in each metropolia and each bishop had several priests who were in charge of separate church-parishes.
Russian Orthodox Church in the whole world:
In USA many Non-Russian Orthodox Churches were part American Metropolia (for example Syrian).
In Russia -- the Holy Synod with Russian Metropolias,
In Western Europe -- the Western-European Metropolia (under Holy Synod),
In America -- the American Metropolia (under Holy Synod).
2. Situation after 1917
After the end of the Civil War, white emigrees moved to the west, and with them their clergy. Emigrants in the new places started organizing parishes and building churches. Thus, besides the already existing churches, new ones appeared everywhere.
During the Godless Period in the History of the Russian Church (1917-1991), the Russian people abroad and their Church, bore a heavy cross. During the civil war, the situation all over the world was not stable. It was right after World War I and everybody had many of their own problems. Wherever the Russians would arrive, they were not greeted with open arms, and this is usually the fortune of all refugees. There awaited foreign countries and people with a different worldview, temperament and intellectual and spiritual needs. A foreign language, foreign psychology, discrimination, all this crippled everybody. Life and the normal development of each person and each family was in one way or the other undermined.
Despite all the difficulties, the Russian emigration kept its dearest treasure, its Orthodoxy and, unexpectedly for itself, became a nursery of Orthodoxy all over the world. During the time when the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia became subservient, its free part abroad became not only the voice of subjugated people, but also a nursery of Orthodoxy.
3. Karlovatzki Sobor
Soon, very severe persecutions of the Church began in the Soviet Union and the communication between the churches abroad and the Church authorities in the USSR was interrupted. Abroad, the situation became difficult since the Church always has to be governed by a canonical authority. To resolve this situation, and based on Patriarch's Tikhon order # 362, in 1921 a conference in Sremski Karlovci, in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians (later called Yugoslavia) was called in which it was resolved to organize a free part of the Russian Orthodox Church, that is the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR) led by Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitcky). (ROCOR is also called ROCA - Russian Orthodox Church Abroad). The structure of this Church included all already existing churches, newly built ones and monasteries outside of Russia. In other words churches newly organized by the white emigration and the churches already existing abroad: the Western-European Metropolia and the American Metropolia. Thus the Russian Orthodox Church was split into two jurisdictions: the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad under Metropolitan Antony (Khrapovitcky) and the remnants of the Russian Orthodox Church under the patriarchal substitute Metropolitan Sergey.
Russian Orthodox Church Abroad in the whole world:
In all countries -- New Russian Dioceses,
In USA/Canada -- American Metropolia,
In Western Europe -- Western-European Metropolia.
Russian Orthodox Church in the USSR:
Destroyed or in the underground (Catacomb Church),
Church remnants under the patriarchal substitute Metropolitan Sergey.
4. World War II
The World War II affected the whole world, and with it the Russian emigree world. In the USSR, in order to attract people in the fight against the Germans, a few freedoms were given to the Church.
The Russian people, their clergy, churches and monasteries became split by the fighting front. One part ended up on the side the of allies in the USA, Canada, England, the USSR etc. The other part ended up under the Germans: in Germany, Italy and their allies, and also in countries occupied by them. In America and Canada the American Metropolia ended up on the allied side. In Western Europe, the main body of the Western-European Metropolia ended up in France which was occupied by the Germans. The governing body and largest part of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCA) was in Yugoslavia, which was occupied by the Germans.
5. After the War and Church jurisdictions
Thus, due to existing circumstances, the Russian emigration gradually became alienated from each other. In other words, there was an increase in alienation between the Abroad, Western-European and American jurisdictions which gradually resulted in a full break. Three jurisdictions were formed which went in their separate ways.
Russian Orthodox Church in all countries (now)
In all countries -- Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCA), (Metropolitan Vitaly in New York/Montreal),
In Russia: Russian Orthodox Church, (Patriarch Alexey II).
The Western-European Jurisdiction (now):
In Western Europe -- Western-European Metropolia, (Under the Patriarch of Constantinople).
Former American Jurisdiction (now):
In USA/Canada -- Orthodox Church in America (OCA), (Independent, Metropolitan Feodosy).
6. Russian Orthodox Church outside of Russia (ROCOR)
[Also Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCA)].
Russian Orthodox outside of Russia always saw herself as the free part of the Russian Orthodox Church. She united around herself the Orthodox people of Russian heritage. The Church travelled a difficult and thorny road. Its mission consisted in preserving the true Orthodox faith, world outlook and Russian heritage for the future free and revived Russia.
During the war, the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad moved from Yugoslavia to Germany, and after the war to New York. This church is now the only Russian Church outside of Russia. So now it is not necessary to talk about jurisdictions, since there is only one left that considers itself Russian.
The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad is doing a tremendous amount of work for the preservation of Russian Orthodoxy in the world. There are many parish and church schools. There is as seminary. There are several monasteries and convents. Spiritual books are being printed, spiritual classics have been reprinted. Magazines and parish leaflets are being printed. Meetings, dinners, lectures, courses, conferences, pilgrimages are arranged. Associated with the churches there are sisterhoods, brotherhoods, libraries, book shops, youth organizations, informal groups. There are children's shelters (orphanages) and nursing homes.
The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad aided the spiritual revival of Russia in general simply by its existence -- by setting an example and a giving hope, and also by sending large quantities of spiritual literature: leaflets, brochures, magazines and books. Old spiritual and historical classics were reprinted and new works were also written. All this was then sent to Russia. During those times the printing press in the Holy Trinity Monastery in Jordanville, NY was working 24 hrs per day.
Some of the more significant acts of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad was the glorification of St. John of Kronstadt, St. Xenia of Petersburg, the Holy New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia (1981), Sts Elders of Optina, St John the Archbishop of Shanghai and San Francisco (1994), St Innokenty the Metropolitan of Moscow (1994), St Nikolai the Archbishop of Japan (1994) and St John the Bishop of Khankouski [Hankow] (1996), and also the organization of festivities relating to the Millenium of the Christening of Russia (1988).
7. American jurisdiction/Orthodox Church in America
The American jurisdiction consisted mainly of parishes organized before 1917. During the 1917 government coups, it was Metropolia headed by Metropolitan Platon in New York. This Metropolia participated in the Karlovatzki Sobor (1921) and became a part of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.
During the Second World War the USA was on the side of the allies. This fact aided the establishment of communications with the USSR and the jurisdiction left the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and went under the Moscow Patriarch.
The American jurisdiction gradually began to lose its Russian heritage, and its Russian Orthodoxy began to fall more and more under the influence of Western Churches. In many parishes they started using the English language, introduced the new calendar, placed pews (benches) similar to western religions, shortened divine services, simplified fasts, replaced private confession with public, gave communion without confession and so on. All this does not occur everywhere in the same manner. For example, in some parishes the old calendar and Russian language are still kept.
The American jurisdiction received from the Russian Orthodox Church in the USSR the so-called autocephaly (church independence) and proclaimed itself the Orthodox Church in America (OCA). She also gave up its Russian name and Russian Heritage, adopted the new calendar and English language.
The American jurisdiction has the St Vladimir's Seminary in New York and St. Tikhon's in Pennsylvania, and also parishes consisting of Aleuts in Alaska.
The American jurisdiction has good relations with the Western-European jurisdiction and the Moscow Patriarchate, but with the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad it does not have any official contacts.
8. Western-European jurisdiction
The Western-European jurisdiction, consists mainly of parishes organized before 1917. During the government coup and the civil war, this jurisdiction was headed by Metropolitan Evlogy in Paris. She participated in the Karlovatzki Conference (1921) and became a part of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.
During the Second World War the free forces of France were on the side of the allies. This fact promoted the establishment of communications with Soviet Russia and the jurisdiction left the Church Abroad and at one time recognized the Moscow Patriarch.
This jurisdiction also began to lose its Russian Heritage and went under the wing of the Patriarch of Constantinople where she is now. Her parishes are in many countries of Western Europe, and the largest part is in France. The well known St Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Paris on "Rue Daru", and also the well known St Vladimir's Seminary is also in their hands.
The Western-European jurisdiction has very good relations with the American jurisdiction and with the Moscow Patriarchate, but with the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad it has no official contacts.
9. Patriarchal jurisdiction
In the Patriarchal jurisdiction there are parishes which are under the Patriarch in Moscow, that is, being abroad, are in the structure of the Russian Orthodox Church in the USSR, and now in Russia. This jurisdiction, during the days of the USSR, was sometimes called the Soviet Church. Ordinarily they had a priest who was assigned from the USSR.
Some churches of this jurisdiction, before 1917, served the Russian embassies and consequently were the property of the Russian state. After 1917 they became the property of the USSR and consequently were in the Patriarchal jurisdiction.
The Patriarchal jurisdiction has contacts with the American and with Western-European jurisdictions and does not have any contact with the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.
(For students of the School at the Church of all Russian Saints)
1. Outside of Russia and before 1917 where were Russian churches and why?
2. What was the structure of the Russian Orthodox Church?
3. To whom were the churches abroad subordinate?
4. Where, when and why was the Karlovatzki Conference called?
5. To whom was the Western-European jurisdiction subordinate before 1917, after 1921 and to whom is it subordinate now?
6. To whom was the American jurisdiction subordinate before 1917, after 1921 and to whom is it subordinate now?
7. What is the "ПЦА" (or in English "OCA")?
8. To whom are subordinate the parishes which are in the Patriarchal jurisdiction?
9. Who is at the head of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad?
10. What is the mission of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad?
11. What did Russian Orthodox Church Abroad do for the revival of Russia?
[П1] Notes in square brackets were not part of the original Russian text.
[П2] Russian Alphabet (SE-03)
Духовный листок «Дорога домой. Выпуск ДД-14(07)а --
История Русской Церкви. Краткие обзоры.
7 -- Русская Церковь за границей»
при Храме всех Святых в Земле Российской просиявших (АНМ)
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de14irc07zag.html, (I-й вып.:25мар90), 29нбр06
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CONTENTS of History of ROC