Дорога домой. Выпуск ДД-14(10)а  [02нбр06]
   
История Русской Церкви.
Краткие обзоры

10 -- ORTHODOX MISSIONS

Contents: (1) Orthodox Missions inside the Country; (1.1) Mission in Kazan; (1.2) Mission in Siberia; (1.3) Missions in European Russia; (1.4) Mission in Caucasus; (2) Orthodox Missions abroad; (2.1) Chinese Orthodox Mission; (2.2) Japanese Orthodox Mission; (2.3) Russian Mission in America.

1 -- Orthodox Missions inside the Country
Missionary (enlightenment) activity of the Russian Church during the Synodal period took place mainly within the extensive Russian Empire and partly abroad.

1.1 Mission in Kazan
In Kazan education was conducted among the Moslem Tatars. Metropolitans Tikhon and Luka Konashevich distinguished themselves especially. Metropolitan Tikhon, with his own means, opened many schools for non-Russian children. Recently (1903), missionary work was led by the Brotherhood of Святитель [Hierarch] Guriya, opened in 1867.

Questions
1. Who conducted the missionary work in Kazan?
2. Besides various individuals who else was engaged in missionary work?

1.2 Mission in Siberia
The wide-open spaces of Siberia, occupied by numerous pagan tribes, represented an opportunity for missionary activity. Now (1903), the Missionary Society takes care of the missions in various archdioceses, within Siberia. Attached to these missions are schools for non-Russian children.
    The most notable missionaries were: Metropolitan Filofey (Leshchinsky), Святитель [Hierarch] Innokenty the first Bishop of Irkutsk, Archimandrite Makary (Glukharev) and Archpriest John Veniaminov (the future Innokenty, Metropolitan of Moscow).

Metropolitan Filofey of Tobolsk
The Tobolsk Metropolitan Filofey (Leschinsky) brought from Kiev learned иноков [monks] and sent them to preach among the Mongols. In 1711 because of a serious illness Metropolitan Filofey resigned from his position and took on the схима [strict monastic vows]. When he felt better, he again began his missionary work and completely dedicated himself to the preaching of Christianity (1715-1721). He baptized татар [Tatars], остяков [Ostyaks] and вогулов [Voguls] by the hundreds, appointed priests for them and built churches. He converted up to 40,000 (forty thousand) non-Russians to Christianity and built 37 churches.

Святитель Innokenty of Irkutsk
Святитель [Hierarch] Innokenty of Irkutsk was постриженник [tonsured, took monastic vows] in the Киево-Печерская Лавра [Kievo-Pecherskaya Monastery] and was the воспитанник [~pupil] of its Academy.
    In 1721 Emperor Peter the First appointed him to be in charge of the Peking Mission, in the position of a Bishop, but the Chinese "богдыхан" [emperor] did not allow the mission in the capital.
    During long negotiations with China, St. Innokenty lived in Irkutsk and was assigned here as a bishop (1727-1731). During all this time he preached among the Siberian non-Russian natives. With his own monies he organized a school at the Irkutsk Ascension monastery in which future Russian missionaries were trained in the Mongolian and Chinese languages. The Lord glorified his apostolic подвиги [feats, achievements] by the нетлением мощей [incorruption of his remains] and he was canonized.
    The memory of Святитель [Hierarch] Innokenty, first Bishop of Irkutsk is observed on the day of the discovery of his remains on February, 9th/22nd and on the day of his repose on November, 26th/December 9th.

Archimandrite Makary.
Archimandrite Makary (Glukharev) was the founder and the head of the Altai Mission. Not sparing his strength and health he labored here for 14 years (1830-1844). All his income he gave to the newly baptized. He translated into the Altai language many prayers, parts of the Gospel and other Church Service books.

Протоиерей Ioann Veniaminov
Протоиерей [Archpriest] Ioann [John] Veniaminov is the future Innokenty, Metropolitan of Moscow. He was orphaned at an early age and received his education in the Irkutsk Seminary. Having completed the seminary he became a priest.
    After two years, in 1823, he voluntarily, with his family, goes 5,000 верста [1.06 kilometers] to the island of Уналашка [Unalaska] (largest of the Aleutian islands) to spread Christianity among the Aleuts. Here he stayed ten years, patiently enduring his labors and deprivations. He learned the Aleutian language and translated into this language the Gospel and prayers, organized a school and a church. Then (1834) he moved to the island of Ситху [Sitka] and here he learned the language of the колоши [Koloshy] and preached to them the Orthodox faith. (Look also the section "Russian Mission in America").
    n 1839 he went to St. Petersburg, on his mission's affairs, and here he received the news (from Sitka) that his wife had died. He became a monk with the name Innokenty and in 1840 he was installed a Bishop in Камчатка [Kamchatka].
    From the island of Sitka, Bishop Innokenty moved to Якутск [Yakutsk]. Here he learned the Yakut language, translated into it the Gospel, a liturgy and prayers and converted into the faith 300,000 (three hundred thousand) Yakuts.
    In 1857 Archbishop Innokenty moved to the Amur region to the city of Благовещенск [Blagoveshchensk], where he converted to Christianity several thousands of primitive Mongols.
    Such exceptional efforts were noted by everybody and therefore, after the death of Metropolitan Philaret (of Moscow), he was installed Metropolitan of Moscow. He died in 1879.
    In the position of Metropolitan of Moscow he developed a new charter of the Orthodox Missionary Society. Under this charter, the central administration was transferred to Moscow, and the metropolitan was appointed its chairman. (Look above, in this Section, about the Missionary Society in Siberia and also below in "Missions in European Russia").
    Святитель [Hierarch] Innokenty of Moscow, enlightener of America (Veniaminov) was canonized in 1977. His memory is observed on March 31/April 13.

Questions
1. Of what faith were the pagan tribes who populated Siberia?
2. What was the business of the Missionary Society in Siberia?
3. In what activity was Filofey, the Metropolitan of Tobolsk engaged?
4. In what activity was Святитель Innokenty of Irkutsk engaged?
5. In what activity was Archimandrite Makary engaged?
6. In what activity was Archpriest John Veniaminov, future Innokenty, Metropolitan of Moscow engaged?

1.3 Missions in European Russia
In European Russia there are also (1903) a number of missions organized by the Missionary Society patterned on the Siberian model. These missions are engaged in the missionary work among: калмыков [Kalmyks], киргиз [Kirghiz], черемисов [Cheremisov], вогулов [Voguls], башкир [Bashkirs], трухмян [Trukhmyan], татар [Tatars] and others. All of these missions, just as the Siberian one, were organized into various dioceses.

Questions
1. The Missionary Society in European Russia was engaged in what activity?

1.4 Mission in Caucasus
In the Caucasus Christianity existed since ancient times. Russian Christian missionary work in the Caucasus had great success. It was necessary to restore Christianity that existed earlier, and also to spread it anew among different Caucasian tribes.
    On the advice of Georgian Archbishop Joseph, the Most Holy Synod in 1745, sent to the Caucasus a mission headed by Archimandrite Пахомия [Pakhomiya], which within 25 years converted to Christianity more than 2,000 (two thousand) people
    The new mission, established by the Synod in 1771, headed by the learned Archpriest Lebedev, within twenty years (1772-1792), просветила [enlightened, baptized] more than 6,000 (six thousand) осетин [Ossetians].
    The activity of the mission became especially successful, starting in 1814, with significant participation of Georgian экзарх [Ekzarkh] Feofilakt (ekzarkh is a position between a metropolitan and a patriarch). During his time more than 40,000 (forty thousand) people were christened, more than 40 (forty) churches were built and prayer books began to be printed in the Osetin language.
    With the conquest of the Caucasus (1859) missionary activity of the Church in this region began to develop even more. In 1860, in Tiflis (Tbilisi), the society for restoration of Orthodox Christianity in the Caucasus was established. With the assistance of this society, many ancient churches in the Caucasus were restored, many rebuilt, schools were opened and monasteries established.

Questions
1. What conditions existed in the Caucasus to promote Christian missionary work?
2. What conditions existed in the Caucasus to promote Christian missionary work?

2 -- Orthodox Missions Abroad
From Siberia, Christian missionary activity passed into neighboring countries, China and Japan.

2.1 Chinese Orthodox Mission
The Orthodox faith was brought to China by Russian prisoners at the end of the 17th century. They were stationed not far from Pekin (Peking or Beijing) in a special settlement, and a church was built for them. According to their request, from Tobolsk, a mission led by Archimandrite Ilarion was sent to China. The main activity of this mission was directed, primarily, towards supporting the faith among the descendants of Russian prisoners.
    Later, there were more funds in the Mission, and young capable men from St. Petersburg and other dioceses were brought in for training in the Chinese language. With their efforts, holy books and Church Service books were translated into the Chinese language. Subsequently, in the Peking mission, a seminary was opened from which graduated educated Chinese missionaries, among which many became priests, deacons and psalm readers. But in general, till now (1903), the number of converted Chinese is fairly small.

Questions
1. When and how did Orthodoxy appear in China?
2. What was done by Russians for the development of Orthodoxy in China?

2.2 Japanese Orthodox Mission
In Japan Orthodoxy spread more successfully. It was started by the labors of Archbishop Nikolay (Kasatkin) (+1912).
    From his early years he dedicated himself to the apostolic calling, and immediately after completing the academy in 1860 he became a priest in the church at the Russian consulate in Khakodate. From that point on, for more than 50 (fifty) years, he constantly labored in spreading and establishing Orthodoxy in Japan.
    Archbishop Nikolay began his missionary activity under very difficult conditions; conversion to Christianity was punishable by death. He had the consolation to see, how conditions in Japanese public life gradually changed for the better. God's Word grew and multiplied, and brought plentiful fruits in the hearts of new Christians of the Japanese Church.
    For greater success of the missionary work, the missionaries were selected from among the Japanese. Missionary Павел Савабе [Paul Savabe], a former жрец [Japanese Buddhist priest] is especially well known.
    Archbishop Nikolay, with holy zeal, labored constantly and tirelessly, translating into the Japanese language the Church [Divine] Service and the holy books, and also constantly travelled across Japan. By his example he inspired his closest coworkers. In 1891, in Tokyo, the capital of Japan, a magnificent church in honor of Christ's Resurrection was consecrated.
    At the present time (1903), the number of Orthodox Christians is over 30,000 (thirty thousand) people. In Tokyo there is an Orthodox theological seminary for the preparation of priests and preachers from among the Japanese. Also there is a women's school and several Orthodox magazines are published.
    Holy равноапостольный [equal-to-apostoles] Nikolay of Japan (Kasatkin) was canonized in 1970г. His memory is observed on February 3/16.

Questions
1. When and how did Orthodoxy appear in Japan?
2. What conditions existed for preaching Christianity in Japan?
3. What was done by Bishop Nikolay for the spread of Orthodoxy in China?
4. Who was taken to be preachers and why?

2.3 Russian Mission in America
The beginning of the North-American Orthodox mission was started, in the 18th century, by monks of the Valaam Monastery. By their labors Orthodoxy spread in the former Russian possession, in Alaska and in the Aleutian islands, among semicivilized алеуты [Aleuts], эскимосы [Eskimos], колоши [Koloshes] and others.
    Later on, in these same islands, the famous missionary Archpriest John Veniaminov tirelessly and fruitfully labored there. At first as a priest (1824-1840), and later on as a bishop (from 1840) and archbishop with the name of Innokenty. By his efforts a special diocese was organized. With the transfer of Alaska and the Aleutian islands into the possession of the United States, this diocese found itself outside of Russia and received the name of Aleutian and North-American. (See section on Mission in Siberia).
    During the last years of the 19th century the Orthodox Church in America was replenished with immigrants, mostly Karpatorosy (Ugrorosy) and Galichans. Uniats by faith, in America they began, in large numbers, to return back to the Orthodox faith, to the faith of their fathers. Serbs and other Orthodox Slavs, and also Greeks and Syrians also entered into these dioceses. After the government coups in Russia, in 1917, a богоборческая власть [God-battling government] came to power and the Church was almost destroyed. In 1921 the Russian churches in America, together with all other Russian churches outside of Russia, became part of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR), organized in Serbia, and non-Russian parishes became part of their own ethnic Churches.
    In 1903, the head of this diocese was a metropolitan who was residing in New York. For the preparation of priests from among the local residents a theological seminary was established.
    Now (1991), with a great influx of Russian immigrants to America, church life has spread and many new churches have been built. (See Chapter on "Russian Church abroad").

Questions
1. When and how did Orthodoxy appear in America?
2. By whom and how was the first American diocese organized?
3. Who became part of the American diocese?

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Примечания [Notes].
[П1] Notes in square brackets were not part of the original Russian text. They are various translations, notes in Cyrillic and others.
[П2] Russian Alphabet (SE-03)

Литература на эл. стр.
• Православный календарь (смотри жития святых): http://www.days.ru/
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